Dynamic Tower

The Dynamic Tower (also known as Dynamic Architecture Building or the Da Vinci Tower) is a planned 420-metre (1,378 ft), 80-floor moving skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, designed by architect David Fisher. The 68-story tower will feature floors that can be individually rotated via voice commands. Similar to the Suite Vollard completed in 2001 in Brazil, each floor
will be able to rotate independently. This will result in a constantly changing shape of the tower. Each floor will rotate at maximum of 6 metres (20 ft) per minute, or one full rotation in 90 minutes. It will be the world’s first prefabricated skyscraper with 40 factory-built modules for each floor. The entire tower will be powered from wind turbines and solar panels. Enough surplus electricity should be produced to power five other similar sized buildings in the vicinity. The turbines will be located between each of the rotating floors.

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The Invisible Car By Mercedes

And Yes it is the “INVISIBLE” what you read is right! The much awaited super invisible car finally made by the Mercedes Benz. Its not a fantasy any more, and they have done it. Its amazing to hear that we are finally sitting in the world where such technology now really exist!

They have put down some super technology of LED to produce a invisible car. All they have done is covered all of the car with LED and given cameras at the sides so that the camera takes image of the other side and make it appear on LED on the other side, making a phenomenon of appearance of nothing in between.

Science Facts

Music was sent down a telephone line for the first time in 1876, the year the phone was invented.

Sound travels through water 3 times faster than through air.

A square piece of dry paper cannot be folded in half more than 7 times.

Air becomes liquid at about minus 190 degrees Celsius.

Liquid air looks like water with a bluish tint.

A scientific satellite needs only 250 watts of power, the equivalent used by two hour light bulbs, to operate.

The thin line of cloud that forms behind an aircraft at high altitudes is called a contrail.

Radio waves travel so much faster than sound waves that a broadcast voice can be heard sooner 18,000 km away than in the back of the room in which it originated.

A US ton is equivalent to 900 kg (2000 pounds). A British ton is 1008 kg (2240 pounds), called a gross ton.

Industrial hemp contains less than 1% of THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana.

Since space is essentially empty it cannot carry sound. Therefor there is no sound in space, at least not the sort of sound that we are used to.

The Space Shuttle always rolls over after launch to alleviate structural loading, allowing the shuttle to carry more mass into orbit.

The word “biology” was coined in 1805 by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.

Most of the air is about 78% nitrogen gas. Only 21% consists of oxygen. The remaining 1% consists of carbon dioxide, argon, neon, helium, krypton, hydrogen, xenon and ozone.

Argon is used to fill the space in most light bulbs. Neon is used in fluorescent signs. Fluorescent lights are filled with mercury gas.

Hydrogen gas is the least dense substance in the world.

Water expands by about 9% as it freezes.

The surface of hot water freezes faster than cold water but the rest of the water will remain liquid longer than in a cold sample.

The smallest transistor is 50-nanometres wide – roughly 1/2000 the width of a human hair.

A compass does not point to the geographical North or South Pole, but to the magnetic poles.

The double-helix structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by James Watson and Francis Crick. The length of a single human DNA molecule, when extended, is 1.7 metres (5 ft 5 in).

In a desert, a mirage is caused when air near the ground is hotter than air higher up. As light from the sun passes from cooler to warmer air, it speeds up and is refracted upward, creating the image of water.

The typical bolt of lightning heats the atmosphere to 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit.

An electric oven uses one kilowatt-hour of electricity in about 20 minutes, but one kilowatt-hour will power a TV for 3 hours, run a 100-watt bulb for 12 hours, and keep an electric clock ticking for 3 months.

 
courtesy: Science fast facts

Some Technology Facts, Did U Know???

160 billion emails are sent daily, 97% of which are spam.

Spam generates 33bn KWt-hours of energy every year, enough to power 2.4 million homes, producing 17 million tons of CO2.

9 out of every 1,000 computers are infected with spam.

Spammer get 1 response to every 12 million emails they send (yet it still makes them a small profit).

A twillionaire is a twitterer with a million or more followers.

There are some 1 billion computers in use.

There are some 2 billion TV sets in use.

There are more than 4 billion cell phones in use. About 3 million cell phones are sold every day.

The first known cell phone virus, Cabir.A, appeared in 2004.

Since 2008, video games have outsold movie DVDs.

Amazon sells more e-books than printed books.

Facebook has 500 million registered users… about 100 million less than QQ.

About 1.8 billion people connect to the Internet, 450 million of them speak English.

Google indexed it’s 1 trillionth unique URL on July 25, 2008. That is thought to be about 20% of all the pages on the Internet but a high percentage of the World Wide Web (the public Internet).

One google search produces about 0.2g of CO2. But since you hardly get an answer from one search, a typical search session produces about the same amount of CO2 as does boiling a kettle.

Google handles about 1 billion search queries per day, releasing some 200 tons of CO2 per day.

The average US household uses 10.6 megawatt-hours (MWh) electricity per year.

Google uses an estimated 15 billion kWh of electricity per year, more than most countries. However, google generates a lot of their own power with their solar panels.

The first public cell phone call was made on April 3, 1973 by Martin Cooper.

The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first cell phone sold in the US; launched on April 11, 1984, it was designed by Rudy Krolopp and weighed 2 pounds.

About 20% of the videos on YouTube are music related.

24 hours of video viewing is uploaded every minute on YouTube.

People view 15 billion videos online every month.

On average, US onliners view 100 videos per month each.

Flickr hosts some 5 billion photographs, Facebook hosts more than 15 billion.

1 Bit = Binary Digit
8 Bits = 1 Byte
1000 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
1000 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte
1000 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte
1000 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte
1000 Terabytes = 1 Petabyte
1000 Petabytes = 1 Exabyte
1000 Exabytes = 1 Zettabyte
1000 Zettabytes = 1 Yottabyte
1000 Yottabytes = 1 Brontobyte
1000 Brontobytes = 1 Geopbyte
Technically speaking, the sum is 1024 bytes.

source:  Technology fast facts

Spontaneous human combustion (SHC)

Spontaneous human combustion (SHC) is the alleged burning of a person’s body without a readily apparent, identifiable external source of ignition. The combustion may result in simple burns and blisters to the skin, smoking, or a complete incineration of the body. The latter is the form most often ‘recognized’ as SHC.

There is much speculation and controversy over SHC. It is not a proven natural occurrence, but many theories have attempted to explain SHC’s existence and how it may occur. The two most common explanations offered to account for apparent SHC are the non-spontaneous “wick effect” fire, and the rare discharge called static flash fires. Although mathematically it can be shown that the human body contains enough energy stored in the form of fat and other tissues to consume it completely, in normal circumstances bodies will not sustain a flame on their own.

 


 

History of Spontaneous Human CombustionMany people believe that Spontaneous Human Combustion was first documented in such early texts as the Bible, but, scientifically speaking, these accounts are too old and secondhand to be seen as reliable evidence.

Over the past 300 years, there have been more than 200 reports of persons burning to a crisp for no apparent reason.

The first reliable historic evidence of Spontaneous Human Combustion appears to be from the year 1673, when Frenchman Jonas Dupont published a collection of Spontaneous Human Combustion cases and studies entitled De Incendiis Corporis Humani Spontaneis. Dupont was inspired to write this book after encountering records of the Nicole Millet case, in which a man was acquitted of the murder of his wife when the court was convinced that she had been killed by spontaneous combustion. Millet, a hard-drinking Parisian was found reduced to ashes in his straw bed, leaving just his skull and finger bones. The straw matting was only lightly damaged. Dupont’s book on this strange subject brought it out of the realm of folkloric rumor and into the popular public imagination.

On April 9, 1744, Grace Pett, 60, an alcoholic residing in Ipswich England, was found on the floor by her daughter like “a log of wood consumed by a fire, without apparent flame.” Nearby clothing was undamaged.

In the 1800’s is evidenced in the number of writers that called on it for a dramatic death scene. Most of these authors were hacks that worked on the 19th century equivalent of comic books, “penny dreadfuls”, so no one got too worked up about it; but two big names in the literary world also used SHC as a dramatic device, and one did cause a stir.

The first of these two authors was Captain Marryat who, in his novel Jacob Faithful, borrowed details from a report in the Times of London of 1832 to describe the death of his lead character’s mother, who is reduced to “a sort of unctuous pitchey cinder.”

Twenty years later, in 1852, Charles Dickens used Spontaneous Human Combustion to kill off a character named Krook in his novel Bleak House. Krook was a heavy alcoholic, true to the popular belief at the time that SHC was caused by excessive drinking. The novel caused a minor uproar; George Henry Lewes, philosopher and critic, declared that SHC was impossible, and derided Dickens’ work as perpetuating a uneducated superstition. Dickens responded to this statement in the preface of the 2nd edition of his work, making it quite clear that he had researched the subject and knew of about thirty cases of SHC. The details of Krook’s death inBleak House were directly modeled on the details of the death of the Countess Cornelia de Bandi Cesenate by this extraordinary means; the only other case that Dickens actually cites details from is the Nicole Millet account that inspired Dupont’s book about 100 years earlier. book about 100 years earlier.

In 1951, the Mary Reeser case recaptured the public interest in Spontaneous Human Combustion. Mrs. Reeser, 67, was found in her apartment on the morning of July 2, 1951, reduced to a pile of ashes, a skull, and a completely undamaged left foot. This event has become the foundation for many a book on the subject of SHC since, the most notable being Michael Harrison’s Fire From Heaven, printed in 1976. Fire From Heavenhas become the standard reference work on Spontaneous Human Combustion.

On May 18, 1957, Anna Martin, 68, of West Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was found incinerated, leaving only her shoes and a portion of her torso. The medical examiner estimated that temperatures must have reached 1,700 to 2,000 degrees, yet newspapers two feet away were found intact.

On December 5, 1966, the ashes of Dr. J. Irving Bentley, 92, of Coudersport, Pennsylvania, were discovered by a meter reader. Dr. Bentley’s body apparently ignited while he was in the bathroom and burned a 2-1/2-by-3-foot hole through the flooring, with only a portion of one leg remaining intact. Nearby paint was unscorched.
July 1, 1951 — Perhaps the most famous case occurred in St. Petersburg, Florida. Mary Hardy Reeser, a 67-year-old widow, spontaneously combusted while sitting in her easy chair. The next morning, her next door neighbor tried the doorknob, found it hot to the touch and went for help. She returned to find Mrs. Reeser, or what was left of her, in a blackened circle four feet in diameter. All that remained of the 175-pound woman and her chair was a few blackened seat springs, a section of her backbone, a shrunken skull the size of a baseball, and one foot encased in a black stain slipper just beyond the four-foot circle. Plus about 10 pounds of ashes. The police report declared that Mrs. Reeser went up in smoke when her highly flammable rayon-acetate nightgown caught fire, perhaps because of a dropped cigarette. But one medical examiner stated that the 3,000-degree heat required to destroy the body should have destroyed the apartment as well. In fact, damage was minimal – the ceiling and upper walls were covered with soot. No chemical accelerants, incidentally, were found.
In 1944 Peter Jones, survived this experience and reported that there was no sensation of heat nor sighting of flames. He just saw smoke. He stated that he felt no pain.

Theories About Spontaneous Human Combustion

– Alchoholism – many Spontaneous Human Combustion vicitms have been alcoholics. But experiments in the 19th century demonstrated that flesh impregnated with alcohol will not burn with the intense heat associated with Spontaneous Human Combustion.

– Deposits of flammable body fat – Many victims have been overweight – yet others have been skinny.

– Devine Intervention – Centuries ago people felt that the explosion was a sign from God of devine punishment.

– Build-up of static electricity – no known form of electrostatic discharge could cause a human to burst into flames.

– An explosive combination of chemicals can form in the digestive system – due to poor diet.

– Electrical fields that exist within the human body might be capable of ‘short circuiting’ somehow, that some sort of atomic chain reaction could generate tremendous internal heat.

No satisfactory explanation of Spontaneous Human Combustion has ever been given. It is still an unsolved mystery.

 

What Remains After a Spontaneous Human Combustion Event

– The body is normally more severely burned than one that has been caught in a normal fire.

– The burns are not distributed evenly over the body; the extremities are usually untouched by fire, whereas the torso usually suffers severe burning.

– In some cases the torso is completely destroyed, the bones being reduced completely to ash.

– Small portions of the body (an arm, a foot, maybe the head) remain unburned.

– Only objects immediately associated with the body have burned; the fire never spread away from the body. SHC victims have burnt up in bed without the sheets catching fire, clothing worn is often barely singed, and flammable materials only inches away remain untouched.

– A greasy soot deposit covers the ceiling and walls, usually stopping three to four feet above the floor.

– Objects above this three to four foot line show signs of heat damage (melted candles, cracked mirrors, etc.)

– Although temperatures of about 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit are normally required to char a body so thoroughly (crematoria, which usually operate in the neighborhood of 2,000 degrees, leave bone fragments which must be ground up by hand), frequently little or nothing around the victim is damaged, except perhaps the exact spot where the deceased ignited.

Types of Spontaneous Human Combustion

Some events of Spontaneous Human Combustion are witnessed but some are not.

All reported cases have occurred indoors.

The victims were always alone for a long period of time.

Witnesses who were nearby (in adjacent rooms) report never hearing any sounds, such as cries of pain or calls for assistance.

In the witnessed combustions – people are actually seen by witnesses to explode into flame; most commonly. Here the witnesses agree that there was no possible source of ignition and/or that the flames were seen to erupt directly from the victim’s skin. Unfortunately, most of the known cases of this type are poorly documented and basically unconfirmed. Sometimes there are no flames seen by the witness.

Non-fatal cases – Unfortunately, the victims of these events generally have no better idea of what happened to them than do the investigators; but the advantage to this grouping is that a survivor can confirm if an event had a simple explanation or not. Thus, there are far fewer cases of Spontaneous Human Combustion with survivors that can be explained away by skeptics without a second look.

Sometimes victims develop burns on their bodies that have no known external cause. These strange wounds commonly start as small discomforts that slowly grow into large, painful marks.

Sometimes the victim will exhibit a mysterious smoke from the body. In these odd and rare occurrences smoke is seen to emanate from a person, with no associated fire or source of smoke other than the person’s body.

On the BBC Television program Q.E.D. (quod erat demonstrandum, which means “that which was to be demonstrated”), Dr. John DeHaan  demonstrated the wick effect with a dead pig. They wrapped the poor thing in a blanket, then used a small drop of gasoline and a spark. It took a while for the flame to catch, but eventually it did, and flames began burning intensely hot but with low flames. The pig burned completely – even its bones were incinerated. But the surroundings were mostly spared – only a nearby television, the floor below and the ceiling above the pig were affected by the fire. It’s exactly what the result of most reported cases of spontaneous human combustion looks like.

The theory behind the wick effect is that the spark (for a human, it might be a burning cigarette or a spark from a fireplace) burns through clothing, then splits the skin enough to access subcutaneous fat. Most victims are alone and presumed to have fallen asleep so they don’t immediately notice the spark. The fat is then absorbed into the clothing and behaves like a candle wick, fueling the flames until no fat is left.

You might think that a pig has a lot more fat than a human. We actually have a similar fat content to our porcine friends. So it makes sense that limbs would sometimes remain intact, since they contain less fat.

How Spontaneous Human Combustion Works

As for the recent case in Ireland, perhaps the coroner hand’t heard of the wick effect. But to this layperson’s eye, Mr. Faherty seems like a prime candidate. He was found next to an open fireplace, which gives a potential source for a spark.

One other interesting note: Faherty was diabetic. According to this “Material Safety Data Sheet ” from ScienceLab, a firm that supplies chemical and laboratory equipment, insulin may be combustible at high temperature. Just sayin’.

 

source:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spontaneous_Human_Combustion

The adjustment between Atomic & Earth Time

INFORMATION ON UTC – TAI

Paris, 5 January 2012
Bulletin C 43
To authorities responsible
for the measurement and distribution of time

UTC TIME STEP
on the 1st of July 2012

A positive leap second will be introduced at the end of June 2012.
The sequence of dates of the UTC second markers will be:

2012 June 30, 23h 59m 59s
2012 June 30, 23h 59m 60s
2012 July 1, 0h 0m 0s

The difference between UTC and the International Atomic Time TAI is:
from 2009 January 1, 0h UTC, to 2012 July 1 0h UTC : UTC-TAI = – 34s
from 2012 July 1, 0h UTC, until further notice : UTC-TAI = – 35s

Leap seconds can be introduced in UTC at the end of the months of December or June, depending on the evolution of UT1-TAI.

Bulletin C is mailed every six months,
either to announce a time step in UTC or
to confirm that there will be
no time step at the next possible date.

Information provided by: INTERNATIONAL EARTH ROTATION SERVICE (IERS), Paris, France

 

The Coordinated Universal Time (or UTC) replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the reference time scale derived from The Temps Atomique International (TAI) calculated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in Paris, France using a worldwide network of atomic clocks. UTC differs from TAI by an integer number of seconds; it is the basis of all activities in the world.

UT1 is the time scale based on the observation of the Earth’s rotation. It is now derived from Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The various irregular fluctuations progressively detected in the rotation rate of the Earth lead in 1972 to the replacement of UT1 as the reference time scale . However, it was desired by the scientific community to maintain the difference UT1-UTC smaller than 0.9 second to ensure agreement between the physical and astronomical time scales.

Since the adoption of this system in 1972, firstly due to the initial choice of the value of the second (1/86400 mean solar day of the year 1900) and secondly to the general slowing down of the Earth’s rotation, it has been necessary to add 21s to UTC.

The decision to introduce a leap second in UTC is the responsibility of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS). According to international agreements, first preference is given to the opportunities at the end of December and June, and second preference to those at the end of March and September. Since the system was introduced in 1972, only dates in June and December have been used.

source: http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/info/leap-second.htm

Information Regarding Leap Second

What are leap seconds?

About every one and a half years, one extra second is added to Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) and clocks around the world. This leap second accounts for the fact that the Earth’s rotation around its own axis, which determines the length of a day, slows down over time while the atomi clocks we use to measure time tick away at almost the same speed over millions of years. So, leap seconds are a means to adjust our clocks to the Earth’s slowing rotation.

How leap seconds work

Illustration imageA second is defined by exactly 9,192,631,770 oscillations of a cesium atom.
(illustration does not show cesium atom

UTC is the time standard used to determine local times in time zones worldwide. It is primarily based on the combined output of several highly precise atomic clocks, a statistical time scale called International Atomic Time (TAI). Although a normal day has 86,400 seconds, in this time scale one second is not defined as one 86,400th of the time it takes Earth to rotate around its axis but as the time it takes a Cesium-133 atom at the ground state to oscillate precisely 9,192,631,770 times.

The advantage of this definition is that it is extremely precise: atomic clocks deviate only approximately one second in 20 million years. On the other hand, the Earth’s rotation, which is expressed by the time standard UT1, is far less reliable. It slows down over time, which means that days get longer. On average, an Earth day is about 0.002 seconds longer than the daily sum of the 86,400 seconds measured by the atomic clocks. This makes for a discrepancy between TAI and UT1 of around 1 second every 1.5 years.

Leap seconds are added to our clocks (UTC) so this discrepancy does not get too large over time and the time we use is synchronized as much as possible with the Earth’s rotation. Before the difference between UTC and UT1 exceeds 0.9 seconds, one second is added to UTC. This means that the time difference between TAI and UTC amounts to an integral number of seconds because whole seconds are added, while the time difference between UTC and UT1 is always less than 0.9 seconds.

 

How many leap seconds have been added so far?

Since 1972, a total of 24 seconds have been added. This means that the Earth has slowed down 24 seconds compared to atomic time since then.

This does not mean that days are 24 seconds longer nowadays. Only the days on which the leap seconds are inserted have 86,401 instead of the usual 86,400 seconds.

When are leap seconds added?

Leap seconds are inserted at the end of the last day in June or December. When that is the case, UTC ticks from 23:59:59 to 23:59:60 before reverting to 00:00:00 (in the 12-hour format, this corresponds to 11:59:59 pm – 11:59:60 pm – 12:00:00 midnight). When that happens the last minute of the month has 61 instead of 60 seconds.

Who decides when leap seconds are added?

The International Earth Rotation and Reference System Service (IERS) observes the Earth’s rotation and compares it to atomic time. When the difference between the two approaches 0.9 seconds, they order a leap second to be added worldwide.

 

source: http://www.timeanddate.com/time/leap-seconds-future.html